As we know Earlier Computers were very Costly and only large organisations could afford them. But in recent years, new technologies and advancements in the fields of Information Technology(IT) have made computers within reach of small organisations and individuals also.
It is hard to believe that there was a time when computers did not exist.Even more so, that the first computers were as big as entire rooms . However, as time progressed, computers became more powerful and much smaller.
The computers are divided into five generations.These are described has follow.
1. First Generation (1940-1956)
2.Second Generation (1956-1963)
3.Third Generation (1964-1971)
5.Fifth Generation(Artificial Intelligence)
👉First Generation (1940-1956)
First generation: 1937 – 1946 – In 1937 the first electronic digital computer was built by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. It was called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). In 1943 an electronic computer name the Colossus was built for the military. Other developments continued until in 1946 the first general– purpose digital computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was built. It is said that this computer weighed 30 tons, and had 18,000 vacuum tubes which was used for processing. When this computer was turned on for the first time lights dim in sections of Philadelphia. Computers of this generation could only perform single task, and they had no operating system.
👉2.Second Generation (1956-1963)
This generation of computers used transistors instead of vacuum tubes which were more reliable. In 1951 the first computer for commercial use was introduced to the public; the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC 1). In 1953 the International Business Machine (IBM) 650 and 700 series computers made their mark in the computer world. During this generation of computers over 100 computer programming languages were developed, computers had memory and operating systems. Storage media such as tape and disk were in use also were printers for output.
👉3.Third Generation (1963-1971)
Third generation: – The invention of integrated circuit brought us the third generation of computers. With this invention computers became smaller, more powerful more reliable and they are able to run many different programs at the same time. In1980 Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-Dos) was born and in 1981 IBM introduced the personal computer (PC) for home and office use. Three years later Apple gave us the Macintosh computer with its icon driven interface and the 90s gave us Windows operating system.
The Fourth generation computers are primarily based on microprocessors comprising Large Scale Integration (LSI) chips and Very Large Scale Integration(VSLI) chips.
The invention of microprocessor chip has created a revolution in the reduction of price and sizes of this generation machines.
- These machines are much faster, less expensive and have greater data processing capacity than equivalent sized third generation computers.
- These machines use advance application software packages, such as process controllers, Computer Aided Designs (CAD), Relational data base management (Oracle 9i).
👉5.Fifth Generation(Artificial Intelligence)
These machines use parallel processing techniques and artificial intelligence similar to the one used by the human brain.Therefore, these computers being designed to think as human being do. They will store very large amount of information, make expert judgement and take accurate and timely decision . These machines when fully developed will be able to process non –numerical data such as picture, graph etc.They will use new types of integrated circuits for faster speed of operation .They will use fiber optics , bubble memory & voice recognition techniques . Such machines are under development in U.S.A and Japan .
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